The Board of Directors at Mission Health in Asheville, North Carolina, faced a challenge. First, it wanted to look beyond traditional inpatient quality measures such as mortality, infection rates, and readmissions to a broader, more robust “directional” indicator of quality. At the same time, the Board wanted a clear answer to simple questions related to Mission’s journey to zero preventable harms (e.g., “How are we doing?” and “Are we getting better or worse?”).
In response, Mission’s Quality Team adapted the American Hospital Association/Health Research & Educational Trust’s (AHA/HRET’s) “Harm Across the Board” metric as a way of achieving internal consistency across Mission’s diverse set of seven hospitals, with the indices for the individual hospitals being rolled up into an enterprise-level index that is easily tracked by the Board and has drill-down capabilities for management.
Consistent visibility into the directionality of an organization’s core performance metrics, such as quality and safety in health care, is a critical Board need.
To facilitate meaningful Board conversations about directional movements in quality and safety across an enterprise, an enterprise-wide index must be granular enough to explain which component metrics are moving the index up or down.
Data governance (specifically, ensuring uniformity of metric definition, measurement, and timing of reporting) is critical and requires constant vigilance to maintain.
While we can now reliably track inpatient preventable harms, our understanding of preventable harms in the ambulatory care setting is much earlier in development and remains a critically important frontier.
Like all boards, Mission’s governance body struggled with a way to assess the entire organization’s quality and safety performance at a glance. While the Board’s Quality Committee had regularly reviewed detailed quality and safety metrics over the years, there was no way to summarize those metrics across the system and easily see whether the entire organization was moving in the right or wrong direction.
This challenge was exacerbated each time a new hospital with new local metrics joined the system, largely because the metrics most relevant to the system’s flagship 763-bed tertiary center were often different from those most relevant to a critical access or rehabilitation hospital.
We sought to create a single index metric — useful at both the system and local levels — that would include all preventable harm metrics relevant to each hospital in an internally consistent manner.
In mid-2015, we chose Harm Across the Board, created by AHA/HRET as part of the first Partnership for Patients Hospital Engagement Network initiative, as our roll-up index. This index includes a collection of preventable harm measures and provides hospitals with the ability to select and track only those that are most relevant to their scope of care. We adapted this index to represent the care provided within each Mission Health hospital and began system-level reporting from January 1, 2015, to create a consistent baseline across entities.
Some measures (e.g., readmissions and medication errors with harm) are tracked at every hospital, whereas others (e.g., measures of obstetric harm and surgical site infections) are only tracked at hospitals providing OB or surgical care. Within the index, management can follow the trend for each of these individual metrics to ensure that both attention and resources are directed appropriately. For the board, each hospital’s numerator (the monthly “n” of preventable harms) and denominator (the total number of patient days) are rolled up into a single enterprise-wide metric that is reported as the “total number of preventable harms per 1,000 patient days.” The table shows the measures that are tracked at each hospital.
Mission’s Quality Department led both the design and implementation phases of operationalizing the Harm Across the Board index across the health system, a process that took place over a period of several months in 2015. Working closely with the Chief Quality Officer, Mission’s Clinical Outcomes Coordinator was responsible for ensuring accurate and consistent data governance (e.g., uniformity of metric definition, measurement, and timing of reporting) and data integration. Mission’s COO, CEO, and Chair of the Quality Committee were periodically updated to ensure that the measure would meet the needs of both management and the Board. With successful validation complete, the Board began receiving bimonthly system-level Harm Across the Board updates in FY2016 and monthly updates in FY2017.
Creating a directional measure for something as broad as “all preventable harms” can seem daunting. In our experience, we found that it is more important to start tracking something and iteratively improve the measure over time than it is to focus on perfecting the measure and, in so doing, delay tracking anything. With an enterprise index as our ultimate goal, we also found it critically important to first partner with individual hospital leaders to ensure that their hospital-level indices were fully relevant and internally consistent.
This foundational work fostered buy-in and created a shared understanding of the “why” behind our development process at both the local and system levels. Each hospital regularly reports its index to its individual hospital board, tracks changes in component metrics, and reports on trends in their metrics during our monthly System Quality Council. These contributions highlight the importance of “systemness,” foster cross-hospital learning, and ultimately inform the health system Board’s conversation about the performance of the enterprise as a whole.
Finally, during development, we learned that aligning metric definitions and reporting accountability across hospitals was critically important to our ability to reliably track the enterprise index. We were fortunate to have general consistency in terms of how each component metric was tracked within each hospital. Yet it still took several months of work to tighten our data governance processes enough to reliably report an enterprise index.
We recognize that acute and post-acute inpatient care, while important, still only represent a subset of the total care that we deliver across Mission Health. Our teams are working together to find the most relevant ambulatory metrics to add to the current inpatient-only measures, and we plan to begin reporting an ambulatory index to our Board in January 2019. While the literature around what to include in such an ambulatory index is still developing, we are following our own advice and will start by reporting something internally consistent, tracking it regularly, and iteratively improving it over time.
Acknowledgements: The authors thank Pam Brownfield for her tireless work on continuously refining and reporting Harm Across the Board as Mission’s Clinical Outcomes Coordinator.